In this page, you’ll find 75 research references that provide information on how Candida goes from a harmless normal constituent of the gastrointestinal tract to a pathogenic systemic problem that can affect anyone and everyone.


The human digestive tract is said to contain some 100 trillion cells compared to about only 10 trillion human cells in the body. This particular arrangement has led to man being classified as a “super-organism,” whose health is directly related to the function of the thousands of species of micro-organisms that make up the 100 trillion cells in the intestinal tract. For years, research suggested that there were 400-500 species that made up this microbial population. Recent advances in research have now put that number at anywhere from 3,300 to 5,700 or more, (9) to upwards of 30,000 species. The intestinal tract houses what has been called “the densest ecosystem on the planet,” and is approximately 25-28 ft long. The surface area of the intestinal tract measures approximately 200 square meters, roughly the size of a tennis court.
Modern medicine states that systemic Candida exists only in immunocompromised individuals, as a result of AIDS, immunosuppressive therapy, such as in organ transplants, or chemotherapy. Science states otherwise, and extends that list to include: diabetes, premature infants, surgical patients; (7)(10) alcoholism, cirrhosis, tuberculosis, cancer, corticosteroids, marrow hyperplasia; (66) hematological malignancies; (8) hospitalized patients, especially in Intensive Care Units, or having major injuries;(10) burn victims; (54) nutritional deficiencies; (22) as well as aging. (22)(35)(36)(37)
Researchers continuously broaden the scope of those being affected. Valdimarsson et al. state that there are no common immunological denominators. (1) Senet states that the pathogenic behavior of Candida may appear following even a slight modification of the host. (55) Berg et al. on behalf of Biocodex Pharmaceuticals states that Candida spreads in immunocompetent individuals. (68)
The widespread use of antibiotics, which induce neutropenia, an abnormally low number of neutrophils (white blood cells), and immune system suppression is commonly attributed by science to be the most consistent cause of systemic Candida.(3)(9)(12)(13)(14)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(55)(56)(57)(64)(67)(68)(69)(76)(77) Corticosteroids suppress immune system function. (11)(17)(68) Intestinal homeostasis is critical for human health. (6)(7)(55)(57)(68)(71)
Candida has been shown to be capable of causing systemic immuno-suppression via its cell wall proteins, (2) TLR2-mediated IL-10 release, (30) protease cleaving of leukocyte integrin CD11/CD18, (25)(31)(34)(62)(63) and intracellular components. (72)
Candida can manipulate inflammatory responses as needed (31)(32) and inflammatory responses can have systemic effects. (44)(45)(46)(47)
Candida has the ability to destroy immune cells, (3)(23)(24)(26)(49) hide from the immune system, (4)(19) adapt to the inner environment of immune cells, (5)(38)(39) resist and suppress ROI and NO production of immune cells, (15)(16)(27)(43) destroy binding sites and receptors of immune cells, (25)(31)(33)(34) manipulate immune responses, (28)(53)(70)(74) and affect immune cell structure. (42)(73)